1.) Anxiety Disorders - 18%
People with anxiety disorders respond to certain objects or situations with fear and dread, as well as with physical signs
of anxiety or nervousness such as rapid heartbeat and sweating. An anxiety disorder is diagnosed if the person's
response is not appropriate for the situation, if the person cannot control the response, or if the anxiety interferes with
normal functioning. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD),3.5%
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), 1% panic disorder, 2+% social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias.
2.) Mood Disorders - 9% These disorders, also called affective disorders, involve
persistent feelings of sadness or periods of feeling overly happy, or fluctuations from extreme happiness to extreme sadness.
The most common mood disorders are depression, 6-7% mania, and bipolar disorder. 2-3%
Psychotic Disorders - These disorders involve distorted awareness and thinking. Two of the most common symptoms
of psychotic disorders are hallucinations - the experience of images or sounds that are not real (such as
hearing voices) and delusions - false beliefs that the ill person accepts as true, despite evidence to
the contrary. Schizophrenia is an example of a psychotic disorder.
Disorders - these involve extreme emotions, attitudes, and behaviors involving weight and food. Anorexia
nervosa, 1% bulimia nervosa 1% and binge eating disorder 3% are the most common
5.) Impulse Control & Addiction Disorders - People
with impulse control disorders are unable to resist urges, or impulses, to perform acts that could be harmful
to themselves or others. Pyromania (starting fires), kleptomania (stealing),
and compulsive gambling are examples of impulse control disorders. Alcohol and drugs are common objects of addictions.
Often, people with these disorders become so involved with the objects of their addiction that they begin to ignore their
responsibilities and relationships. ADHD 4%.
6.) Personality Disorders
- 9% People with personality disorders have extreme and inflexible personality traits that are distressing to the person
and/or cause problems in work, school, or social relationships. In addition, the person's patterns of thinking
and behavior significantly differ from the expectations of society, and are so rigid, that they interfere with the person's
normal functioning. Examples include anti-social personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, and
paranoid personality disorder. Autism 9%, Boderline PD 1%, Avoidant PD 5%, Anti-social PD 1%
The main psychopathological features of autism are severe deficiencies in social interaction
and communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors (11). Autism is one of three disorders collectively called autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), the other two being Asperger syndrome
and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The current prevalence of ASD is estimated
to be ~0.5–1%,http://www.nature.com/pr/journal/v69/n5-2/full/pr9201190a.html
with the stigma of mental illness:
Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is now of proven
efficacy across the spectrum of mental disorders (Enright, 1997): its core strategy is disseminating information about the illness. Holmes & River (1998) have outlined a CBT approach
to combating stigma in individuals. Their article is one of seven similar articles in the Winter 1998
(vol. 5) issue of Cognitive Behavioural Practice.