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Critical Thinking

Reasoning & Logic

Creative Thinking

Evidence-Based Thinking.....Rules of Evidence

Rules of Evidence

Fingerprint Questioned

Eye Witness evidence questioned

Logical Reasoning


Scientific Thinking:  "...
possible limits to deduction.  I don't think much of science is about deduction or proving theorems.  Its an inductive endeavor.  We create models to account for data.   We try to find the simplest models that are good at predicting phenomena, and we try to understand their mechanisms.  There's no proof that these models are "correct"; they are "verified" only by showing that they work on data we have seen so far.  In short,  induction, not deduction, is the way most science works.  

Moral Reasoning.....Moral Feeling.....Moral Action


Systems Thinking

The 5th Discipline - Summary

Causal Loops.....Reinforcing & Balancing


Moral Reasoning

Utilitarianism - John Stewart Mill & Jeremy Bentham
In utilitarianism, the moral worth of an action is determined only by its resulting outcome, although there is debate over how much consideration should be given to actual consequences, foreseen consequences and intended consequences. In A Fragment on Government, Bentham says, "it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong"

Categorical Imperative- Immanual Kant
The capacity that underlies deciding what is moral is called pure practical reason, which is contrasted with pure reason (the capacity to know without having been shown) and mere practical reason (which allows us to interact with the world in experience). Hypothetical imperatives tell us which means best achieve our ends. They do not, however, tell us which ends we should choose. The typical dichotomy in choosing ends is between ends that are "right" (e.g., helping someone) and those that are "good" (e.g., enriching oneself). Kant considered the "right" superior to the "good"; to him, the "good" was morally irrelevant. In Kant's view, a person cannot decide whether conduct is "right," or moral, through empirical means. Such judgments must be reached a priori, using pure practical reason. 

Veil of Ignorance - John Rawls (allocating resources & assigning principals to schools)
in Mahatma Gandhi's Talisman, given in 1948.

"I will give you a talisman. Whenever you are in doubt, or when the self becomes too much with you, apply the following test. Recall the face of the poorest and the weakest man whom you may have seen, and ask yourself, if the step you contemplate is going to be of any use to him. Will he gain anything by it? Will it restore him to a control over his own life and destiny? In other words, will it lead to swaraj [freedom] for the hungry and spiritually starving millions? Then you will find your doubts and your self melt away."[6]

The veil of ignorance is part of the long tradition of thinking in terms of a social contract. The writings of Immanuel Kant, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau, and Thomas Jefferson offer examples of this tradition.


Cognitive Behavior Therapy - Hypotheses....



2 x 2 Cost / Benefit Reasoning Example: Global Climate Change


Empiricism / Rationalism.....Induction / Deduction


Critical Thinking is For Teachers Too!


Simplistic Thinking

Selfish Thinking

Short-Term Thinking



Acts of folly   "...have to be clearly contrary to the self-interest of the organization or group pursuing them; conducted over a period of time, not just in a single burst of irrational behavior; conducted by a number of individuals, not just one deranged maniac; and, importantly, there have to be people alive at the time who pointed out correctly why the act in question was folly (no 20/20 hindsight allowed).


The March Of Folly by Barbara Tuchman - Review


Simple Machines


The Senses


Mental Models & Mind Sets

Mind Sets & Mental Models

Carol Dweck and Others on The Growth Mindset, Effort, and Happiness - Video

Visible Thinking Magic - Adam Sicinski

Malleability of Intelligence

Extended Thinking - Learning-Focused Schools The deep understanding that leads to retention, application and transfer comes when learners refine their original is not surprising that extended thinking ranks as the number one strategy that positively impacts student learning...The ultimate goal is when given an assignment students will choose the appropriate thinking strategy and explain the reasoning behind their selections.....More....

Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking About The News - Fact Check by Politifact

Metaphorical (Visible) Thinking & Mental Models

VAK Primary Learning Modalities

Eight-Step Social Decision-Making and Social Problem-Solving Approach - From: Building Learning Communities With Character p 8

1 - Recognize Feelings

2 - Identify Problems, look at current situation

3 - Set Goals....focus the change efforts

4 - Generate Options....brainstorm....divergent thinking

5 - Envision oucomes

 6 - Choose carefully....collaborate

7 - Plan Prescriptively

8 - Learn Constantly....obtain feedback.....monitor and adjust....

Making Thinking Visible - Learning is a consequence of thinking . Students' understanding of content, and even their memory for content, increases when they think through and with the concepts and information they are studying. Fostering thinking requires making thinking visible . Thinking happens mostly in our heads, invisible to others and even to ourselves. Effective thinkers make their thinking visible, meaning they externalize their thoughts through speaking, writing, drawing, or some other method. They can then direct and improve those thoughts.....More....

Creative Thinking

The MacArthur Fellows Program awards unrestricted fellowships to talented individuals who have shown extraordinary originality and dedication in their creative pursuits and a marked capacity for self-direction.

MacArthur Foundation

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